दर्शन, philosophy


Perception – A source of knowledge

Knowledge is the basis of understanding everything about this existential phenomenon and beyond. It is a journey from known to the unknown that forms any philosophy. The Indian schools of philosophy have laid down six different ways to gain this knowledge.

These are-

1. Perception or Pratyaksha

2. Inference or Anumana

3. Verbal Testimony or Sabda/ Agama

5. Comparison or Upmana

6. Implication or Arthapati

7. Non-apprehension or Anupalabdhi

Let’s discuss perception in the present article.

Perception implies using the senses to perceive. This happens through a contact with the object and the sense organ. Thus, perception involved a sense organ, an object and a contact between them.

Five sense organs exist, namely, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. Corresponding to these five sense organs, one can experience five types of perception, namely, visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactual.

Almost, all schools of Indian Philosophy accept perception as a reliable, and valid source or knowledge. The Carvaka accept only perception as a valid source of knowledge and refute others. They establish their stand by saying that one cannot establish an invariable unconditional concomitance relation (Vypati) between the perceived (hetu) and the unperceived (sadhya), that is the known and the unknown, respectively. To understand this better, let’s take an instance of a smoke and a fire. Vyapti cannot be established between the two, as we do not have knowledge of all cases of smoke and fire. Perception allows us to have knowledge of a specific smoke and associated fire. A particular case can not lead to a generalization, what is perceived at that particular instant is the only truth. The universal proposition theory will lead to a fallacy called illicit generalization.

According to them, inference as a source of valid knowledge is like taking a leap in the dark, from the perceived smoke and the unperceived fire.

To counter attack the Carvakas, The Jain’s propound that just as inference can go wrong sometimes, similarly perception can also go wrong, as it happens in the case of illusion and hallucinations. So, perception can not be termed as the only source of valid knowledge. The stance by Carvakas about perception being valid in every instance, makes them go towards inference.

The Sautantrika school of Buddhism puts forth their stance against the Carvakas saying that if an object exists, it is not the subject matter of perception. It is the mind that through its own consciousness infer the existence of external objects.

The Nyayas go a little further, stating that taking perception as the only source of valid knowledge will make our lives limited and practical life difficult.

philosophy : perception : knowledge

Souful, Uncategorized

Cosmic Delight

The cosmos always amazes us, be it the moon, the sun, a star, a constellation or the milky way. Everything looks mesmerizing and a splendid phenomenon. Let’s celebrate the beauty of this cosmos, through a series of poems under the title, “Cosmic Delight”.

A star-lit night

When I look at the stars,

I adore the balmy twinkling, 

Of these cosmic beauties.

That create beautiful patterns, 

On the canvas of this Prussian sky. 

And make the onlooker realize,

 It’s the flagrant desire. 

That gives a resplendence, 

That reaches the fathomless terrains,

 And brightens up the darkest facades.

Leaving a soothing hope, 

That inner light is magic, 

With a message-” Let it shine uninhibited, 

And spread its glow, 

To the seekers of truth, 

Who traverse the murky paths,

 And the treacherous routes, 

To reach the final destination, 

Of the light of pure veracity. “


inspiration, poetry

Surrealism- The play of energy

Who doesn’t love sunrises? Who doesn’t love remembering the same in dreams? Dreams have a power that can transcend the limitations of logic and knowledge. This sunrise from a low mountain range in sub-urban Mumbai took a special form. The poetry and the picture below explains this.

rings of light from a core of darkness

The Lines

A churning ball of fire,

Rising flames of unquenched desire,

From the abyss of dark reality,

Creating rings of concurrent plurality,

Approaching my dormant emotions,

Infusing a vigor in these latent notions,

Making my core shine,

With the light of the divine,

A call of existence,

To wake up from resistance,

And embrace this friction,

To overcome any restriction,

That hinders this soul,

To live its purpose, its goal.